The environment of India comprises some of the world’s most biodiverse ecozones. The Deccan Traps, Gangetic Plains, and the Himalayas are the major geographical features. The country faces different forms of pollution as its major environmental issue and is more vulnerable to the effects of climate change being a developing nation.
BiotaThe Bengal tiger. Along with other species, India has the most species of cats than any other country.
India has some of the world’s most biodiverse ecozones—desert, high mountains, highlands, tropical and temperate forests, swamplands, plains, grasslands, areas surrounding rivers, and an island archipelago. It hosts three biodiverse hotspots: the Western Ghats, the Himalayas, and the Indo-Burma region. These hotspots have numerous endemic species.
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In 1992, around 7,43,534 km2 of land in the country was under forests and 92 percent of that belonged to the government. Only 22.7 percent was forested compared to the recommended 33 percent by the National Forest Policy Resolution (1952). The majority of it is broad-leaved deciduous trees that comprise one-sixth sal and one-tenth teak. Coniferous types are found in the northern high altitude regions and comprise pines, junipers, and deodars.